Most of the natural ingredients used as traditional medicine have not been studied scientifically. These properties are basically caused because there are certain substances in the form of alkaloids, glycosides, essential oils and others. To find out a traditional medicinal ingredient is efficacious, it must be shown the existence of substances – substances efficacious in these ingredients, both chemically and biologically. In addition to qualitatively, these nutritious substances must be determined quantitatively. All natural ingredients that are used as medicine should hold to the guideline that the medicinal ingredients do not cause acute or chronic poisoning and the drug ingredients are proven to cure diseases or have medicinal properties. It aims to protect the public and provide information about the use of traditional medicines that are supported by scientific data which includes the efficacy, safety and the plants must be obtained continuously.
One of the plants that is often used is Anredera cordifolia (Ten.) Steenis or known by the community with binahong. In Indonesia, this plant has not been widely known, but people have used ready-made preparations from binahong from China to help cure various diseases. Some people consider that the original binahong is binahong from China, while the binahong plant that grows in Indonesia is fake binahong. The price of binahong originating from China is relatively expensive and there are not many pharmacies or drug stores that provide these drugs. In order to meet the needs of traditional medicine, especially binahong, it is necessary to do research to prove that binahong which grows in Indonesia also has the same properties as binahong which grows in China.
Binahong plants have been known for thousands of years by Chinese, Korean, Taiwanese and so on. The binahong plant originated in China and spread to Southeast Asia. In European and American countries, this plant is quite well known, but experts there have not been interested in researching seriously and deeply, even though various properties as a drug have been recognized. In the Southeast Asian region, this plant is a mandatory consumption of Vietnamese residents when the war against America. This plant has many benefits in curing various kinds of minor and severe diseases, including as wound medicine. Almost all parts of binahong plants such as tubers, stems, flowers and leaves can be used in herbal therapy.
Binahong plants (Anredera cordifolia (Ten.) Steenis) are potential medicinal plants that can overcome various types of diseases. This plant originated from the plains of China with its original name is Dheng shan chi, in England called madeira vine. Binahong plants (Anredera cordifolia (Ten.) Steenis) are included in the family Basellaceae and are one of the medicinal plants that have great potential in the future to be studied, because there are still many that need to be excavated as phytopharmaca. This plant originated in China and spread to Southeast Asia. In Indonesia, this plant is known as gendola which is often used as a circular gate on a park road. These vines need to be developed and investigated further. Especially to reveal the efficacy of the active ingredients it contains. Various experiences encountered in the community, binahong can be used to help the healing process of serious diseases.
The binahong plant is a perennial plant, which can reach a length of 5 m. The roots are rhizome, soft flesh. The stem is soft, cylindrical, intertwined with each other, red in color, solid inside, smooth surface, sometimes forming a kind of tuber that is attached to the armpit of leaves with irregular shapes and rough texture. Single leaves, very short stem (subsessile), arranged alternately, green, heart shape (cordata), 5-10 cm long, 3 – 7 cm wide, thin strands of weak leaves, pointed edges, curved bases (emerginatus), flat edges , slippery surface, edible. Cluster-shaped compound flowers, long-stemmed, appear in the armpit of the leaves, whitish cream-colored crowns amounting to five strands not attached, the length of the crown strands 0.5-1 cm, fragrant. Generative propagation (seeds), but more often develops or is propagated vegetatively through the roots.
As a wound medicine, binahong contains several chemical ingredients, namely flavonoids, oleanolic acid, protein, saponins, and ascorbic acid. Ascorbic acid content in this plant is important to activate the prolyl hydroxylase enzyme that supports the hydroxylation stage in the formation of collagen, so that it can accelerate the process of wound healing.
Binahong plants are one of the medicinal plants that have great potential in the future to be studied, because there are still many that need to be extracted from this plant as phytopharmaca. Various people’s experiences, binahong can be used to help the healing process of serious diseases, as antioxidants, antibiotics, antibacterial, antiviral, and anti-inflammatory. The results of the phytochemical test of binahong leaves found polyphenols, alkaloids, and flavonoids in binahong leaf extract. Binahong leaves have flavonoids, saponins, and steroids / triterpenoids. Flavonoids are the largest group of phenol compounds, which have effective properties to inhibit the growth of viruses, bacteria, and fungi. The mechanism of action of flavonoids, among others, causes damage to bacterial cell wall permeability and can inhibit bacterial motility.
The results showed that binahong leaves contained compounds of flavonoids, alkaloids, saponins, and polyphenols. Flavonoids have attracted much attention because studies in vitro and in vivo show their potential as antioxidants and free radical killers. In addition, flavonoids also function as anti-allergies, anti-carcinogenic, anti-hypertensive, anti-arthritis, and anti-microbial effects. Alkaloids are one of the secondary metabolites that are found in nature and have certain physiological activity. The saponin compound is a foaming solution which is classified according to the structure of aglycone in the triterpenoid and steroid saponins. Saponin is proven to have antibacterial activity.
Bulbs binahong (Anredera cordifolia (Ten) Steenis) can be used to treat pain in the teeth accompanied by swelling that comes out of pus, acute gastritis, headache, heartburn, canker sores, treating surgical scars, reducing pain after surgery, reducing inflammation after surgery , hemorrhoid (hemorrhoids), gout, rheumatism, normalizes cholesterol levels in the blood, vertigo, typhus, sore throat, migraine. People in general get information that the binahong plant is efficacious as a medicine from the experience of people who have used binahong tubers earlier.
Binahong leaves contain ascorbic acid, oleanolic acid and saponins. Ascorbic acid can accelerate wound healing. Oleanolic acid has anti-inflammatory properties and can reduce pain in burns. Saponin has the ability as a cleanser and can stimulate the formation of collagen which is a protein that plays a role in wound healing.
Acne is a skin disease caused by a blockage of oil glands on the skin accompanied by infection and inflammation. Acne generally appears on the face, but can also appear on the head, back, chest, or upper arms. Acne can be caused by Propionibacterium acnes bacteria. Propionibacterium acnes bacteria is one of the gram positive bacteria and the main agent that causes acne inflammation.
One of the medicinal plants that has an anti-acne effect is binahong leaves (Anredera cordifolia (Ten) Steenis. The secondary metabolites of binahong leaves include flavonoids, saponins, alkaloids, polyphenols, and monopolysaccharides including L-arabinose, D-galaktose, Lrhamnosa. Daun binahong has activities antioxidants, ascorbic acid, and phenolic compounds and these compounds have the ability to fight gram-positive and gram bacteria.